Give at least two examples for each one. Task redesign, job design, process design, organization structure design, reporting relationships Diff: The user is the primary focus of software development. Whether a new information system succeeds or fails largely depends on the roles of users.
Purpose Metadata provides context for data. Metadata is used to facilitate the understanding, usage, and management of data, both by human and computers. Thus metadata can describe the data conceptually so that others can understand them; it can describe the data syntactically so others can use them; and the two types of descriptions together can facilitate decisions about how to manage the data.
The metadata required to effectively work with data varies with the type of data, their context of use, and their purpose.
Often data providers will provide users access to a variety of metadata fields, which can be used individually or in combinations, and applied by different users to achieve different goals.
These users can be human 'end users', or other computing systems. See also the Use section below for more details about the use of metadata.
Hierarchies When structured into a hierarchical arrangement, metadata is more properly called an ontology or schema. Both terms describe "what exists" for some purpose or to enable some action. For instance, the arrangement of subject headings in a library catalog serves not only as a guide to finding books on a particular subject in the stacks, but also as a guide to what subjects "exist" in the library's own ontology and how more specialized topics are related to or derived from the more general subject headings.
Metadata is frequently stored in a central location and used to help organizations standardize their data. This information is typically stored in a metadata registry.
Examples These examples list metadata that describe particular digital entities. For clarity and consistency with some definitions of metadata, these examples are expressed with respect to digitized form of each entity, not data that is represented solely in a physical object like a book.
For information resources that are not in digital form, metadata is only the information that describes the information content, not the information about the physical representation.
In most cases, the examples illustrate the use of metadata to describe the entity's content conceptuallyhow the entity came to be provenanceand information necessary for the system to use it.
Because the concept of metadata is specific to each situation—"one person's data is another person's metadata"—examples should be considered illustrative rather than absolute. Video Recording The television show or movie recorded on a digital video recorder has extensive metadata. These may include the title, director, actors, summary of the contents, length of the recording, critical rating, and the data and source of this recording.
System use metadata includes the file name and current status viewing status, 'save until' date. Book Examples of metadata regarding a book would be the title, author sdate of publication, subject, a unique identifier such as International Standard Book Number ISBNnumber of pages, and the language of the text.
Metadata unique to the electronic format includes usage last opened, current page, times read and other user-provided data ranking, tags, annotations. System use metadata might include purchase and digital rights information for the content.
Image Digital images include both digital photographs, and images that have been created or modified on a computer. Metadata for a digital photograph typically includes the date and time at which it was created and details of the camera settings such as focal length, aperture, exposure.
Some cameras can automatically include extended metadata such as the location the picture was taken e. Most image editing software includes at least some metadata in the digital image, and can include content about the image's provenance and licensing.
Audio Audio recordings may also be labeled with metadata.
When audio formats moved from analogue to digital, it became possible to embed this metadata within the digital content itself.
Without any metadata, the digital content is simply a file containing the audio waveform. Metadata can be used to name, describe, catalogue and indicate ownership or copyright for a digital audio file, as well as allow user characterizations of the audio content ratings, tags, and other auxiliary metadata.
Its presence simplifies locating a specific audio file within a group, through use of a search engine that accesses the metadata. The typical audio player or audio application on a computer relies heavily on metadata to provide user features.
As different digital audio formats were developed, it was agreed that a standardized and specific location would be set aside within the digital files where this information could be stored. As a result, almost all digital audio formats, including mp3, broadcast wav and AIFF files, have similar standardized locations that can be populated with metadata.
This "information about information" has become one of the great advantages of working with digital audio files, since the catalogue and descriptive information that makes up the metadata is built right into the audio file itself, ready for easy access and use.
Web page The HTML format used to define web pages allows for the inclusion of a variety of types of metadata, from simple descriptive text, dates and keywords to highly-granular information such as the Dublin Core and e-GMS standards.
Pages can be geotagged with coordinates. Metadata may be included in the page's header or in a separate file. Microformats allow metadata to be added to on-page data in a way that users don't see, but computers can readily access.
Levels The hierarchy of metadata descriptions can go on forever, but usually context or semantic understanding makes extensively detailed explanations unnecessary. The role played by any particular datum depends on the context.
But, when considering the data management of an automated system that manages geographical data, "Post Code" might be a datum and then "data item name" and "6 characters, starting with A—Z" would be metadata.Encapsulation describes the ability of an object to hide its data and methods from the rest of the world and is one of the fundamental principles of object-oriented programming.
In Java, a class encapsulates the fields, which hold the state of an object, and the methods, which define the actions of the object. Moreover, development of internet and network technology will connect them more effectively and the present development of A.I.
technology will give intelligence to each computing component. ‘Ubiquitous’ means installing the computer into the physical structure in real the world [ 4 ]. Service-oriented architecture (SOA) is a software development model for distributed application components that incorporates discovery, access control, data mapping and security features.
IEEE Internet of Things (IoT) Journal publishes articles on the latest advances, as well as review articles, on the various aspects of IoT. Topics include IoT system architecture, IoT enabling technologies, IoT communication and networking protocols such as network coding, and IoT services and applications.
(Points: 25)(TCO F) What qualities of object-oriented development make this method especially suitable for Internet applications? (Points ; 20)(TCO F) You have been hired as a consultant for a nationwide real estate firm, Cross & Deptford, who areinterested in achieving better organization between branches by updating their information systems.
According to Gartner, top growth areas include location-based services, social networks, mobile search, mobile commerce, mobile cash, context-aware services, object recognition, mobile instant messaging, mobile e-mail, and mobile video.
Approaches to Development. Possible architectures for the development of mobile apps vary greatly.