Three current trends and future developments in database models

Since then, finance has been undergoing developments and revolutions to match the evolution of the human society.

Three current trends and future developments in database models

InAutodesk released a white paper entitled "Building Information Modeling," [8] and other software vendors also started to assert their involvement in the field.

Building Information Modeling BIM is a digital representation of physical and functional characteristics of a facility. A BIM is a shared knowledge resource for information about a facility forming a reliable basis for decisions during its life-cycle; defined as existing from earliest conception to demolition.


Building information modeling extends this beyond 3Daugmenting the three primary spatial dimensions width, height and depth with time as the fourth dimension 4D [20] and cost as the fifth 5D. BIM involves representing a design as combinations of "objects" — vague and undefined, generic or product-specific, solid shapes or void-space oriented like the shape of a roomthat carry their geometry, relations and attributes.

Three current trends and future developments in database models

BIM design tools allow extraction of different views from a building model for drawing production and other uses. These different views are automatically consistent, being based on a single definition of each object instance.

BIM throughout the project life-cycle[ edit ] Use of BIM goes beyond the planning and design phase of the project, extending throughout the building life cycle, supporting processes including cost managementconstruction managementproject management and facility operation.

Management of building information models[ edit ] Building information models span the whole concept-to-occupation time-span. To ensure efficient management of information processes throughout this span, a BIM manager also sometimes defined as a virtual design-to-constructionVDC, project manager — VDCPM might be appointed.

Building Information Modeling aids in collision detection at the initial stage, identifying the exact location of discrepancies. The BIM concept envisages virtual construction of a facility prior to its actual physical construction, in order to reduce uncertainty, improve safety, work out problems, and simulate and analyze potential impacts.

Waste can be minimised on-site and products delivered on a just-in-time basis rather than being stock-piled on-site. Scopes of work can be isolated and defined.

Systems, assemblies and sequences can be shown in a relative scale with the entire facility or group of facilities. This can yield benefits to the facility owner or operator. For example, a building owner may find evidence of a leak in his building.

Rather than exploring the physical building, he may turn to the model and see that a water valve is located in the suspect location. He could also have in the model the specific valve size, manufacturer, part number, and any other information ever researched in the past, pending adequate computing power.

Three current trends and future developments in database models

Such problems were initially addressed by Leite and Akinci when developing a vulnerability representation of facility contents and threats for supporting the identification of vulnerabilities in building emergencies. Approaches include referencing key metrics such as the Facility Condition Index FCIor using 3D laser-scanning surveys and photogrammetry techniques both separately or in combination to capture accurate measurements of the asset that can be used as the basis for a model.

Trying to model a building constructed in, sayrequires numerous assumptions about design standards, building codes, construction methods, materials, etc.

BIM in land administration and cadastre[ edit ] BIM can potentially offer some benefit for managing stratified cadastral spaces in urban built environments. The first benefit would be enhancing visual communication of interweaved, stacked and complex cadastral spaces for non-specialists.

Market and Industry Trends

The rich amount of spatial and semantic information about physical structures inside models can aid comprehension of cadastral boundaries, providing an unambiguous delineation of ownership, rights, responsibilities and restrictions. Additionally, using BIM to manage cadastral information could advance current land administration systems from a 2D-based and analogue data environment into a 3D digital, intelligent, interactive and dynamic one.

The early applications, and the hardware needed to run them, were expensive, which limited widespread adoption. Poor software interoperability has long been regarded as an obstacle to industry efficiency in general and to BIM adoption in particular.

Virtual Design and Construction. Due to its population and economic growth, India has an expanding construction market.

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Under the Construction Industry Master Plan[36] it is hoped more emphasis on technology adoption across the project life-cycle will induce higher productivity.This article related to telecommunications is a can help Wikipedia by expanding it.

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Recent developments in Life Cycle Assessment - ScienceDirect