However, other ills are avoidable, especially those stemming from poor economic planning and delayed drought response. This section establishes a baseline of typical economic consequences of drought.
The Growing Battle between Mining and Agriculture April 17, Posted by Keith Slack Mining often sets up a direct competition with small-scale agriculture for control of land. Mining, as well as oil and gas extraction, has exploded across the region in the last decade, driven by high prices for gold and industrial metals like copper that are needed primarily to feed the Chinese economy.
This boom has also been experienced in Africa and Asia, where governments have sought to exploit their resource endowments to drive development. The expanding mining sector has contributed to strong economic growth in some countries but has also generated social conflicts in rural areas that must be urgently addressed.
Tensions over control of land and, most importantly, water have led to community protests and violent conflict. Reconciling these two important development drivers has become a critical governance issue, particularly in the most fragile states where the conflicts between the two can often be seen most starkly.
In theory, both mining and agriculture can provide pathways out of poverty. Agriculture provides direct benefits to those who engage in it. Mining can also play a role in promoting development, although more indirectly, by generating revenues for governments.
Governments can use taxes and royalties paid by mining companies for infrastructure investments and other productive purposes.
Mining companies also pay for community development programs, build schools and roads, and make other investments. Unfortunately, the compatibility of these two development paths, which tend to take place in the same rural areas, is at best questionable.
These negative impacts can be permanent and render previously fertile agricultural land unusable. Mining also requires large amounts of land that could otherwise be used for agricultural production.
This sets up a direct competition with small-scale agriculture for control and use of land.
This can perpetuate a cycle of poverty and conflict in which these farmers-turned-miners are forcibly evicted and beaten by police for coming onto land claimed by large-scale mining projects.
Mining companies argue that mining and agriculture are not necessarily incompatible. But there are few examples of where this has been the case, particularly in developing countries, where oversight of the mining industry is often very weak.
Communities relocated to make way for gold mines in Ghana struggle with loss of agricultural land, unemployment, and environmental damage.
First, the environmental impact assessment process for mining projects needs to be significantly strengthened and made more independent.
At present, governments rely on information provided by companies, which is most often not reviewed by an independent third-party. Companies thus have an incentive to downplay potential impacts of their operations on land and water in agricultural areas.
The cumulative impacts on land and water of several mines operating in the same area have not been thoroughly examined. Improved planning on how land will be used is another crucial step that governments should take.
Mining concessions are often awarded without consideration for impacts on agricultural production. Zoning land for particular uses, e. Greater dialogue between the mining and agricultural sectors would be helpful.
In Peru recently, the mining and agriculture ministries have signed a cooperation agreement. This is potentially a positive, although overdue, step. It may ultimately require the admission that the two simply are incompatible over the long-term in particular areas.
What is clear is that these discussions are urgently needed now so that conflict and violence produced by the juxtaposition of these two sectors diminishes and that countries can benefit from both their above-and below-the-ground resources.negative impact on the international competitiveness of energy intensive industries.
Its performance Australian Industry Report The geographic distribution 7 of economic activity to other Australian sectors (the all-industries benchmark) but. Botswana cent. The real growth in non-mining output fell from per cent recorded in / to 4 per cent during /01 (the slowest in the last six years).
The slower growth of the non-mining sectors was mainly attributed to the poor performance .
CHAPTER 3. ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF DROUGHT. Drought historically has caused direct and indirect economic, social, and environmental problems throughout the world.
5 Some of these problems are difficult to avoid, even with early preparation. However, other ills are avoidable, especially those stemming from poor economic planning and delayed drought response.
The environmental impact of agriculture is the effect that different farming practices have on the ecosystems around them, and how those effects can be traced back to those practices.
The environmental impact of agriculture varies based on the wide variety of agricultural practices employed around the world. Negative effects, on the other hand, can arise from the market power of large foreign firms and the attendant ability to generate very high profits or from interference .
The extent to which energy costs impact on competitiveness is not well known in Australia Background Export competitiveness to energy intensity/cost changes 1 2 Australian Industry Report The energy–competitiveness 4 relationship Uncovering energy costs’ impact on the competitiveness of Australia’s industries.