References and Further Reading 1. Kinds of Knowledge We talk of knowledge: But what is knowledge?
The complete article is available at http: A few years ago, a group of Alaska Native elders and educators was assembled to identify ways to more effectively utilize the traditional knowledge systems and ways of knowing that are embedded in the Native communities to enrich the school curriculum and enliven the learning experiences of the students.
After listening for two days to lengthy discussions of topics such as indigenous world views, Native ways of knowing, cultural and intellectual property rights and traditional ecological knowledge, an Inupiaq elder stood up and explained through an interpreter that he was going to describe how he and his brother were taught to hunt caribou by their father, before guns were commonplace in the upper Kobuk River area of northern Alaska.
The elder described how his father had been a The different ways that knowledge can be a burden respected hunter who always brought food home when he went out on hunting trips and shared it with others in the village.
One day when he and his brother were coming of age, their father told them to prepare to go with him to check out a herd of caribou that was migrating through a valley a few miles away.
They eagerly assembled their clothing and equipment and joined their father for their first caribou hunt. When they reached a ridge overlooking the nearby valley, they could see a large herd grazing and moving slowly across a grassy plain below. Their father told his sons to lay quietly up on the ridge and watch as he went down with his bow and arrows to intercept the caribou.
The boys watched as their father proceeded to walk directly toward the caribou herd, which as he approached began to move away from him in a file behind the lead bulls, yet he just kept walking openly toward them. This had the two brothers scratching their heads wondering why their father was chasing the caribou away from him.
Once the father reached the area where the caribou had been grazing, he stopped and put his bow and arrows down on the ground. As the now elder told the story, he demonstrated how his father then got into a crouching position and slowly began to move his arms up and down, slapping them against his legs as though he were mimicking a giant bird about to take off.
Slowly at first, the caribou began to circle back in a wide arc watching the figure flapping its wings out on the tundra, and then they began running, encircling their father in a closing spiral until eventually they were close enough that he reached down, picked up his bow and arrows and methodically culled out the choice caribou one at a time until he had what he needed.
He then motioned for his sons to come down and help prepare the meat to be taken back to the village. As the elder completed the story of how he and his brother were taught the accrued knowledge associated with hunting caribou, he explained that in those days the relationship between the hunter and the hunted was much more intimate than it is now.
With the intervention of modern forms of technology, the knowledge associated with that symbiotic relationship is slowly being eroded.
But for the elder, the lessons he and his brother had learned from their father out on the tundra that day where just as vivid when he shared them with us as they had been the day he learned them, and he would have little difficulty passing a graduation qualifying exam on the subject 70 years later.
The knowledge, skills and standards of attainment required to be a successful hunter were self-evident, and what a young hunter needed to know and be able to do was both implicit and explicit in the lesson the father provided.
The insights conveyed to us by the Inupiaq elder drawing on his childhood experience also have relevance to educators today as we seek ways to make education meaningful in the 21st century. It is to explicating such relevance that the remainder of this article will be directed through a close examination of common features that indigenous knowledge systems share around the world, followed by a closer look at some of the initiatives that are contributing to the resurgence of Alaska Native knowledge systems and ways of knowing as a catalyst for educational renewal.
Indigenous peoples throughout the world have sustained their unique worldviews and associated knowledge systems for millennia, even while undergoing major social upheavals as a result of transformative forces beyond their control.
The depth of indigenous knowledge rooted in the long inhabitation of a particular place offers lessons that can benefit everyone, from educator to scientist, as we search for a more satisfying and sustainable way to live on this planet.
Winter, special issue of Cultural Survival Quarterly on indigenous education. As this shift evolves, it is not only indigenous people who are the beneficiaries, since the issues that are being addressed are of equal significance in non-indigenous contexts Nader Many of the problems that are manifested under conditions of marginalization have gravitated from the periphery to the center of industrial societies, so the new but old insights that are emerging from indigenous societies may be of equal benefit to the broader educational community.
Until recently there was very little literature that addressed how to get Western scientists and educators to understand Native worldviews and ways of knowing as constituting knowledge systems in their own right, and even less on what it means for participants when such divergent systems coexist in the same person, organization or community.
It is imperative, therefore, that we come at these issues on a two-way street, rather than view them as a one-way challenge to get Native people to buy into the western system. Native people may need to understand western society, but not at the expense of what they already know and the way they have come to know it.Can Knowledge Be A Burden Rather Than A Benefit?There is a serious attention paid to the issue that whether knowledge is a burden rather than a initiativeblog.com all intents and purposes, there are various opinions on the issue.
In my narrow perspective, knowledge is just irrelevant, if there's no knowledge, there will be no chance for us to make the world a better place. Shifting the burden of proof, a special case of argumentum ad ignorantium, is the fallacy of putting the burden of proof on the person who denies or questions the assertion being made.
The source of the fallacy is the assumption that something is true unless proven otherwise. Here are ways to MyCollegeSuccessStory com: Empowering Academic. not analysis -- Ron Marks.
Ph D Introduction % the different ways that knowledge can be a burden of all disasters are failures of design. and other affected areas. Knowledge can be a burden. An example where information has been a burden was when knowledge in weapons was used to create nuclear weapons.
Another way facts can be burdensome is gossiping. A final way awareness can be burdensome is when it ruins views on something. Knowledge in . Different social arrangements would bring into being different ways of thinking and acting, new aims and values.
In that sense, possibly knowledge is an artefact, created by us in social groupings, used by us in those same groupings — often wittingly and deliberately so.
Knowledge can be used in various ways, some of which could well. The burden was hard to bear, yet I prayed for strength to bear it. Sin brings its punishment, and it is hard work, bearing its burden! She had taken Anna into business with her, but the burden of the partnership had always been on Harriet.