How does phosphate affect the growth

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How does phosphate affect the growth

Veneklaas Find articles by Erik J. For Permissions, please email: Abstract Background and Aims In some lupin species, phosphate deficiency induces cluster-root formation, which enhances P uptake by increasing root surface area and, more importantly, the release of root exudates which enhances P availability.

Methods Three species of Lupinus, L. Key Results The highest growth rate was observed in L. The highest P uptake and accumulation was observed in L.

Phosphates are chemicals containing the element phosphorous, and they affect water quality by causing excessive growth of algae. About 3 1/2 pounds of phosphates per person enter the environment in the United States annually from farms, yards, waste water and factory waste. Have you heard that there might be Trisodium Phosphate in Cereal or in other foods? So is this a problem? As it turns out TSP (Trisodium phosphate) is in many products. Glucosephosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) enzyme deficiency testing is used to screen for and help diagnose G6PD deficiencies. G6PD is an enzyme found red blood cells (RBCs). G6PD deficiency causes RBCs to become more vulnerable to breaking apart under certain conditions and can lead to anemia.

By contrast, production of cluster roots in L. Global demand for P fertilizer continues to increase while global reserves of P are in decline Steen, ; Cordell et al.

The availability of soil P for plants is related to several plant characters, including the release of carboxylates Ryan et al.

Several investigators have reported that P is a key element that strongly influences the initiation and growth of cluster roots Shane and Lambers, In field studies, some grain legumes exhibit higher P-acquisition efficiency than other crops due to cluster-root formation and release of carboxylate Bolland et al.

Cluster roots release large quantities of carboxylates in an exudative burst from mature clusters Watt and Evans, ; Shane and Lambers, On the other hand, adequate P supply to plants inhibits cluster-root formation and so avoids excessive loss of carbon from the root system Keerthisinghe et al.

Several investigators have reported either initiation or inhibition of cluster-root formation to be linked to internal P concentration in the plant Shane et al.

However, the exact location of the signal has not yet been fully elucidated; it might be the shoot P concentration, the P concentration in phloem sap or the P concentration in the root Shane et al.

Recently, Pearse et al.


The P concentration in a plant is balanced by phosphate uptake and plant growth rate. The capacity for P uptake may be affected by several environmentally or genetically controlled factors that differ among Lupinus species Pearse et al.

If shoot P concentration is a signal for prevention of cluster-root formation, different species with inherent differences in maximum growth rate and P uptake may differ in the foliar P concentration that either initiates or suppresses cluster-root formation.

In this way, those plants that grow quickly, even with a higher uptake of phosphate, may accumulate little P in their shoot and stimulate cluster-root formation. By contrast, species that have an inherently low growth rate may accumulate high levels of P in their shoot, even at a relatively low phosphate supply.

It is therefore of interest to evaluate changes in P concentration and cluster-root formation in different plants with inherently different growth rates as affected by phosphate supply in their root medium.

Based on preliminary experiments, three Lupinus species with inherently different growth rates, L. These species are all Old World species, which naturally occur in the Mediterranean and North Africa their origins are: The P concentration in shoot and root and plant growth rate were determined to assess possible correlations with cluster-root formation.

The hydrated seeds were sown in pots filled with washed river sand in a glasshouse on 31 May, and watered lightly daily.

Seedlings were carefully removed and the roots washed free of sand on 8 June, Healthy seedlings of equal size for each species were selected for hydroponic culture. De-ionized water was used for making the nutrient solution and the entire solution was replaced daily.

The experiment was carried out in a factorial, completely randomized design.Biological oxygen demand measures the amount of oxygen used by microorganisms in the oxidation of organic matter. When there are too many phosphates in aquatic systems, algae proliferates, dies, and then aerobic bacteria decomposes them, starving the water of oxygen and killing bacteria and other aerobic creatures.

Monopotassium phosphate, MKP, (also potassium dihydrogenphosphate, KDP, or monobasic potassium phosphate), KH2PO4, is a soluble salt of potassium and the dihydrogen phosphate ion.

It is a source of phosphorus and is also a buffering agent. What is iron phosphate?

How does phosphate affect the growth

What are some products that contain iron phosphate? How does iron phosphate work? How might I be exposed to iron phosphate? The peptide hormones page provides an overview of structure and function of numerous classes of protein-derived hormones which exert a wide-range of autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine functions.

Phosphorus blood levels are tested to determine the amount of the mineral phosphorus in our body. In its free form, phosphorus is present as an ion also known as inorganic phosphate.

Jan 15,  · Vitamin A is Still a Vitamin. In a recent newsletter, Dr. John Cannel of the vitamin D council warned against taking cod liver oil as a source of vitamin D, because retinols – preformed vitamin A – interfere with the function of vitamin D.

Dr. Cannel suggested obtaining omega-3 fatty acids from fish oils and vitamin A from carotenes. 4 Such advice elevates the status of vitamin D over.

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