From the large scale

Two decades of modernization of forces by the People's Liberation Army, the Communist Party of China-led army, "has already resulted in a force capable of contesting U. The new guidance from Xi directs the PLA to achieve these goals nearly 15 years sooner than previous military modernization goals. Prior to reaching its military buildup goals, China also may resort to covert information and non-kinetic warfare to achieve its objectives.

From the large scale

Operations, describes how the Army is adapting its posture to the current operational environment. Emerging regional threats like Iran, North Korea, and Russia require the Army to shift its focus from counterinsurgency to large-scale combat operations.

At the same time, the character of war is evolving to battle across multiple domains including land, sea, air, space, and cyberspace. Given these converging changes, the next war the United States fights will be far more dynamic and complex than the counterinsurgency and stability operations in which it has been heavily engaged for more than a decade and a half.

This reality creates new problems and requirements for the intelligence warfighting function, and requires intelligence professionals to develop the skills needed to meet these requirements and abandon the concepts, habits, and standard operating procedures learned and practiced over this period.

In order to understand what this transition means for intelligence, it is useful first to dissect counterinsurgency operations, and particularly how intelligence functions in them.

In counterinsurgency, the insurgent threat has limited land warfare capacities and little to no capabilities in other domains.

As strategist Bill Dries has discussedthe dominance that the United States enjoys in the counterinsurgency and counterterrorism fight allows for war planning and fighting to be highly centralized and controlled: The United States is able to maneuver its joint force largely uncontested.

These protracted conflicts may From the large scale incredible persistence, but they demand little adaptation on the part of friendly forces. As such, operations are highly cyclical.

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Deployments are regularly scheduled. Missions are conducted from static, fortified bases. This is not to say that counterinsurgency is easy. Limited success in Afghanistan and Iraq alike suggests otherwise.

From the large scale

Counterinsurgency and Intelligence Preparation of the Battlefield Intelligence Preparation of the Battlefield IPB in counterinsurgency is informed by the characteristics of counterinsurgency described above.

As such, the IPB process is largely population-centric. Battlespace analysis is human-focused, not terrain-focused. Personnel analyze and understand battlespace characteristics like demographics, culture, tribes, and clans as much as they work to understand its terrain features.

IPB in counterinsurgency is also cyclical. Determining threat courses of action is relatively repetitive. Though the precise time, location, and target of an attack may vary, the range of possible types of attack generally does not.

As a result, intelligence personnel are trained extensively on targeting processes like D3A—decide, detect, deliver, and assess— and F3EAD—find, fix, finish, exploit, analyze, and disseminate. This training and application is largely specific to counterinsurgency operations and has limited application to large-scale combat operations.

Counterinsurgency heavily leverages two types of intelligence. First, it requires a robust employment of human intelligence. Many have highlighted that the interaction with the local population is critical to painting a picture of the human terrain. Targeting operations emphasize nonlethal means so that collectors can have access to the target, mining her or him for more information on the threat network.

Second, signals intelligence has also proven important in the targeting process during counterinsurgency operations. Advantages of Operating in a Counterinsurgency Environment Another important characteristic of counterinsurgency is its degree of unprecedented interagency cooperation and jointness.

In counterinsurgency operations, there is a significant level of visibility and access to information between the tactical, operational, and strategic levels of war. This means that intelligence personnel, even if operating at the tactical level, can enjoy an abundance of products and assets usually reserved for, or at least principally intended for, the operational or strategic levels.

For example, a battalion S2 has access to products built by civilian intelligence agencies. Similarly, if a unit takes contact, higher headquarters can often immediately re-task assets to assist them.

In a counterinsurgency environment, the United States enjoys dominance across all domains. The threat does not have the capability to overrun US units.

American forces safely enter the area of operations; they often fall in on equipment, procedures, and products that already exist in theater; and they relieve other units with relative ease. Soldiers know generally when they will be deploying.

In a large-scale combat situation, none of these things would likely be true. Rather, counterinsurgency has an identifiable, consistent problem and solution, which greatly reduces the complexity of the war.

Large-Scale Combat Operations Book Set

This becomes particularly clear when compared to the complexity of the warfare intelligence personnel face in large-scale combat operations. General Characteristics of Large-Scale Combat Operations The character of large-scale combat operations differs dramatically from that of counterinsurgency.

Many of the differences emerge from the stark contrast in capabilities between an insurgent and a peer or near-peer threat.The large-scale managers online community is for large-scale community managers that work in day to day operations for large-scale communities.

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Jan 30,  · You have answered your own question: it is hyphenated because it is an adjective. Large-scale operations in Iraq began eight months ago. ADJECTIVE The operations in Iraq are on a large scale. NOUN. 8 days ago · Beijing is sharply speeding up a large-scale buildup of military forces in preparation for a future conflict with the United States, according to the congressional commission report made public.

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