History[ edit ] Warren McCulloch and Walter Pitts  created a computational model for neural networks based on mathematics and algorithms called threshold logic.
Stem Cell Biology and Toxicology 2: This session seeks to address this issue through outlining liver cell heath assays that are fit for purpose, and also outline the development of innovative preclinical test systems, which are both mechanism-based and of physiological, pharmacological, and pathological relevance to DILI in humans.
An iterative, tiered approach with respect to Evaluating training at hutchinson inc compounds, test systems, bioanalysis, and mathematical systems analysis has been adopted to evaluate existing models, and develop new models that can provide validated test systems, with respect to the prediction of specific forms of DILI and further elucidation of mechanisms that relate to idiosyncratic DILI.
The approach encompasses completely characterised cell lines, well-defined, and physiologically stable hepatocytes, multi-cell type in vitro models and animal models.
Triangulation of human, in vitro and animal data is providing a fundamental understanding of how drugs can harm the liver, and how this relates to the idiosyncratic response.
The objectives of this symposium: Explore and understand the relationship between in vitro assay signals and DILI in vivo, in preclinical test species, and in man; 3. Enhance shared understanding, between academia, pharma, and regulatory agencies, of the value and limitations of new and existing approaches for DILI hazard identification and risk assessment.
Richard Weaver, Servier, Paris, France. Mikael Persson, Astrazeneca, Gothenburg, Sweden. A Race against the Clocks Symposium 2: Cardiovascular Toxicology Specialty Section Inhalation and Respiratory Specialty Section Exposure to air pollution has emerged as one of the leading causes of death world-wide.
The World Health Organization WHO estimates that every year exposure to air pollution causes 7 million premature deaths. Extensive epidemiological studies have shown that exposure to polluted air increases the risk of pulmonary and cardiovascular diseases as well as metabolic disorders; however, the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms have remained elusive.
Air pollution exposure affects pulmonary, cardiac, and vascular functions that follow circadian rhythmicity and increases the risk for pulmonary and cardiovascular events that follow diurnal patterns.
Recent studies have shown that exposures to air pollution disrupt pulmonary and cardiovascular molecular circadian clocks, changes circadian blood pressure pattern, and exacerbates the cardiometabolic effects of dyssynchrony misaligned circadian rhythm.
This symposium will highlight this research, identifying the circadian clocks and rhythms as a novel target of air pollution exposure, and will compare the effects of air pollution on circadian rhythmicity with circadian rhythm disruption induced by other stressors such as ischemia, virus infections and diabetes.
The circadian rhythm—defined as physiological, mental, and behavioral changes following a 24 h cycle—controls fundamental physiology, cellular and molecular processes, such as blood pressure, cell division, and DNA-repair that regulate physiological homeostasis.
Circadian rhythmicity is regulated by external signals such as light, temperature, food, or physical activity, called Zeitgeber. However, the normal circadian rhythmicities of these environmental factors are disrupted by our modern lifestyle choices.
For instance, circadian dyssynchrony, the misalignment between the central clock supra chiasmatic nucleus, SCN in the hypothalamus and peripheral clocks by the disturbing the light cycle e.
Although the central pacemaker, the SCN has long been considered the primary regulator of circadian rhythm the discovery of clock gene expression, and function in peripheral tissues has challenged this dogma. Peripheral circadian clocks play a critical role in optimizing the organization of cellular function in the lungs, and are directly involved in metabolic homeostasis and cardiovascular function.
The studies presented in this symposium will illustrate the importance of different peripheral circadian clocks in the development of pulmonary, cardiovascular, and metabolic disorders, and will provide evidence that exposure to different air pollution disrupt peripheral circadian clocks and circadian rhythm in pulmonary and cardiovascular tissues similar to the circadian misalignment induced by other stressors such as ischemia, virus infections, and diabetes.
The specific presentations of this symposium will show that: In summary, this symposium will provide novel aspects and new mechanistic insights to understand the adverse health effects originating from air pollutant exposure, and our modern lifestyle in association with circadian clock and rhythm disturbances.
Clock Control of Cardiovascular Physiology and Pathophysiology. Blood Pressure Circadian Rhythm.
Fine Particulate Matter PM2. Immunotoxicology Specialty Section Neurotoxicology Specialty Section Interactions between the immune and nervous systems are critical to overall health and wellness.
These interactions are dynamic and vary throughout life, in part due to the age-dependent plasticity of these two complex and dispersed organ systems. In addition, early in development, the maternal immune system contributes to both normal and abnormal brain development of the offspring.
Evidence indicates that exogenous exposures to a variety of pressures such as stress, xenobiotics, including psychoactive substances, and infection can result in neuroimmune dyshomeostasis that is a core component in the etiology of many neurological disorders.
Age and developmental stage are already recognized as key toxicity modifiers due to age-dependent differences in metabolism or barrier, i. However, perturbation of the integrity of the neuro-immune axis by environmental factors within the context of age is only a recent focus of investigation, and is largely underappreciated by the toxicology community.
The goal of this symposium is to highlight the importance of considering age and developmental stage in neuroimmunotoxicology by providing examples of neuroimmune dyshomeostasis caused by pollutants, pathogens, and psychoactive substances when exposures take place at different stages of life.
An Introduction to Neuroimmune Dyshomeostasis: Focus on Autism-Like Neurodevelopmental Disorders.A spirometer is an apparatus for measuring the volume of air inspired and expired by the lungs.A spirometer measures ventilation, the movement of air into and out of the lungs.
The spirogram will identify two different types of abnormal ventilation patterns, obstructive and restrictive. Developing New Drugs to Tackle Antimalarial Resistance. Drug resistance threatens progress in the battle against malaria.
To enable discovery of new antimalarials, Merck & Co., Inc., Kenilworth, NJ, USA (known as MSD outside of the US and Canada) shared aspartyl protease inhibitors with researchers from the Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research (WEHI), Australia.
The formula for survival in resuscitation describes educational efficiency and local implementation as key determinants in survival after cardiac arrest.
Current educational offerings in the form of standardized online and face-to-face courses are falling short, with providers demonstrating a decay of skills over time.
This translates to suboptimal clinical care and poor survival outcomes from. Development of Synthetic Self-Replicating RNA Platforms for Oncology Vaccines and Therapeutics. Nathaniel Wang, PhD, Head, Vaccines and Therapeutics, Viral Systems, Synthetic Genomics, Inc.
RNA as a vaccine and therapeutic modality has become a focus of significant interest. Teleclass recordings and slides are posted here IMMEDIATELY if the teleclass was free-registration or AFTER ONE YEAR if it was not free-registration.
Recordings are ALWAYS available in the Member's Area of those who registered for the teleclass. The origins and development of environmental psychology are summarized and a general definition of the field is offered.
Its current vigorous state is held to be a product both of the way its practitioners have met the challenges of application and of the benefits accruing from the cumulative impact of several scientific research traditions.