And as last week demonstrated, when it comes to the US attempting to impose its "imperatives" on Europe read Germany in the form of the one and only "solution" available to the US namely print, print, print any such venture ends in mockery, ridicule and general disparagement of TurboTax experts. So just what is it about Europe that makes the two regimes so incompatible? Well, for one thing the fact that unlike the US, Germany has already suffered through a period of hyperinflation, seen the disastrous impact of central planning in the form of a totalitarian regime and it subsequent dissolution with the fall of the Berlin Wall, and experienced an economic "miracle" or the period between andin which Germany denied central planning and unleashed a golden age predicated by free and fair capital markets, and the abolition of all rules and regulations established by the occupying powers.
Support for laissez-faire commerce and free markets were expressed by politicians sitting on the left because these represented policies favorable to capitalists rather than to the aristocracy, but outside parliamentary politics these views are often characterized as being on the Right. The reason for this apparent contradiction lies in the fact that those "to the left" of the parliamentary left, outside official parliamentary structures such as the sans-culottes of the French Revolutiontypically represent much of the working class, poor peasantry and the unemployed.
Their political interests in the French Revolution lay with opposition to the aristocracy and so they found themselves allied with the early capitalists. However, this did not mean that their economic interests lay with the laissez-faire policies of those representing them politically.
As capitalist economies developed, the aristocracy became less relevant and were mostly replaced by capitalist representatives. The size of the working class increased as capitalism expanded and began to find expression partly through trade unionist, socialist, anarchist and communist politics rather than being confined to the capitalist policies expressed by the original "left".
This evolution has often pulled parliamentary politicians away from laissez-faire economic policies, although this has happened to different degrees in different countries, especially those with a history of issues with more authoritarian-left countries, such as the Soviet Union or China under Mao Zedong.
Thus the word " Left " in American political parlance may refer to "liberalism" and be identified with the Democratic Partywhereas in a country such as France these positions would be regarded as relatively more right-wing, or centrist overall, and "left" is more likely to refer to "socialist" or "social-democratic" positions rather than "liberal" ones.
Academic investigation[ edit ] For almost a century, social scientists have considered the problem of how best to describe political variation. Ferguson[ edit ] InLeonard W.
Ferguson analyzed political values using ten scales measuring attitudes toward: Submitting the results to factor analysishe was able to identify three factors, which he named religionismhumanitarianism and nationalism.
He defined religionism as belief in God and negative attitudes toward evolution and birth control ; humanitarianism as being related to attitudes opposing war, capital punishment and harsh treatment of criminals ; and nationalism as describing variation in opinions on censorship, law, patriotism and communism.
This system was derived empirically, as rather than devising a political model on purely theoretical grounds and testing it, Ferguson's research was exploratory.
As a result of this method, care must be taken in the interpretation of Ferguson's three factors, as factor analysis will output an abstract factor whether an objectively real factor exists or not.
He believed that there was something essentially similar about the National Socialists Nazis on the one hand and the communists on the other, despite their opposite positions on the left—right axis.
As Hans Eysenck described in his book Sense and Nonsense in Psychology,  Eysenck compiled a list of political statements found in newspapers and political tracts and asked subjects to rate their agreement or disagreement with each. Submitting this value questionnaire to the same process of factor analysis used by Ferguson, Eysenck drew out two factors, which he named "Radicalism" R-factor and "Tender-Mindedess" T-factor.
Such analysis produces a factor whether or not it corresponds to a real-world phenomenon and so caution must be exercised in its interpretation. While Eysenck's R-factor is easily identified as the classical "left—right" dimension, the T-factor representing a factor drawn at right angles to the R-factor is less intuitive, as high-scorers favored pacifismracial equalityreligious education and restrictions on abortionwhile low-scorers had attitudes more friendly to militarismharsh punishmenteasier divorce laws and companionate marriage.
Despite the difference in methodologylocation and theorythe results attained by Eysenck and Ferguson matched. Simply rotating Eysenck's two factors 45 degrees renders the same factors of religionism and humanitarianism identified by Ferguson in America.
Eysenck was an outspoken opponent of what he perceived as the authoritarian abuses of the left and right and accordingly he believed that with this T axis he had found the link between nazism and communism.
According to Eysenck, members of both ideologies were tough-minded. Central to Eysenck's thesis was the claim that tender-minded ideologies were democratic and friendly to human freedomswhile tough-minded ideologies were aggressive and authoritariana claim that is open to political criticism.
In this context, Eysenck carried out studies on nazism and communist groups, claiming to find members of both groups to be more "dominant" and more "aggressive" than control groups. Eysenck himself lent theoretical support to the English National Party which also opposed "Hitlerite" Nazism and was interviewed in the first issue of their journal The Beacon in relation to his controversial views on relative intelligence between different races.
The interpretation of tough-mindedness as a manifestation of "authoritarian" versus tender-minded "democratic" values was incompatible with the Frankfurt school 's single-axis modelwhich conceptualized authoritarianism as being a fundamental manifestation of conservatism and many researchers took issue with the idea of "left-wing authoritarianism".
This abstract dimension may or may not correspond to a real material phenomenon and obvious problems arise when it is applied to human psychology. The second factor in such an analysis such as Eysenck's T-factor is the second best explanation for the spread of the data, which is by definition drawn at right angles to the first factor.
While the first factor, which describes the bulk of the variation in a set of data, is more likely to represent something objectively real, subsequent factors become more and more abstract. Such a construct would be expected to appear in factor analysis whether or not it corresponded to something real, thus rendering Eysenck's thesis unfalsifiable through factor analysis.
Eysenck's work, Milton Rokeach developed his own two-axis model of political values inbasing this on the ideas of freedom and equalitywhich he described in his book, The Nature of Human Values.Both systems are democratic in nature, as governments are put in place and removed from power by the will of the people and both have systems of checks and balances to limit the power of any one branch.
Head of State In the U.S. political system, the president is the official head of state. The president is elected under the electoral college system.
Get the latest science news and technology news, read tech reviews and more at ABC News. Start studying AP Government and Politics: Chapter 4 - American Political Culture. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. The Wuhan Gang & The Chungking Gang, i.e., the offsprings of the American missionaries, diplomats, military officers, 'revolutionaries' & Red Saboteurs and the "Old China Hands" of the s and the herald-runners of the Dixie Mission of the s.
(Note that the Soviet Red Army military advisers sent to China were mostly German Jews, and the Comintern agents sent to China were mostly American.
Compare and contrast democracy in Japan with democracy in France and Great Britain. Japan= concensus-based society with informal highly personal networks of political power basde on patron-client relations into a set of political institutions that are similar to Europe (made in USA).
Comparative Political and Economic Systems Comparative Political and Economic Systems The last two decades of the 20th century were great for democratic governments. The Cold War ended with the collapse of communist dictatorships throughout Eastern Europe, including the Soviet Union itself.
Purposes of Political Systems.